The Sunyaev- Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift because of Cosmic Dust

Cosmic dust explains why the intensity of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift.

Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect
Collapsing cluster galaxies are implosions producing extremely energetic electrons at temperatures of about 10^8 K. Astronomers believe CMBR photons passing through the collapsing galaxies gain energy by collisions with these electrons and blue-shift by the inverse-Compton effect. Measurement of CMBR in the direction of a cluster of galaxies shows a measurable, but almost imperceptible distortion called the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). See e.g.,

The SZE shows the 20 to 1000 GHz microwave emission from collapsing cluster galaxies is virtually identical to the CMBR. The SZE spectrum shows a decrease in intensity at frequencies lower than around 218 GHz with an increase in intensity at higher frequencies. Although electrons at 10^8 K emit X-rays, the thermal distortion of the CMBR is only of the order of one-thousandth of a Kelvin in temperature. At a given frequency, the SZE intensity varies in brightness in proportion to the mass distribution within the cluster. The SZE is usually only associated with massive objects such as clusters of galaxies, i.e., a single galaxy has insufficient mass to cause measurable distortions in the SZE.

However, the most remarkable finding is the SZE intensity is independent of redshift Z

QED induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
Standard cosmology finds difficulty in explaining the independence of the brightness of the SZE intensity with Z. The SZE brightness during implosive cluster collapse should be no different than that from the explosive Supernova (SN) Type 1a expansion known to be proportional to Z. In fact, any time variation of light in any form including brightness of the SZE should be proportional to 1/(1+Z). See Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, 1972 and Blondin et al. at

Opinions are diverse of why this is so. Some astronomers think there is no redshift in the SZE because the inverse-Compton process based on scattering does not produce redshift. However, this cannot be correct because the CMBR photons are not redshift, but rather are blueshift in the SZE. In fact, the redshift measured in the SZE can only be caused by the optical and X-ray emission from the cluster galaxy collapse. The question may be asked:

Why do the explosive SN show redshift proportional to their magnitude while the implosive collapsing cluster galaxies do not show proportionality of the SZE to redshift?

In alternative cosmology, the question for collapsing galaxies may be answered by QED induced redshift of absorbed optical and X-ray photons in cosmic dust particles (DPs). Similar arguments have been made to explain the redshift from SN explosions. See and

By QED induced redshift in DPs, there is no conceptual difference between the Z of an exploding SN and an imploding cluster galaxy as both emit optical and X-ray photons that are absorbed in DPs. The DPs may be in or near the explosions or implosions including those distantly disposed in the light path to the observer. The only difference is the SN produce DPs that are proportional to the dust emission or magnitude of the SN explosions. In contrast, implosive cluster galaxy collapse does not produce DPs because temperatures in excess of 10^8 K preclude any dust formation. See .The Z in collapsing clusters is therefore independent of the SZE intensity because the absorption of optical and X-ray photons takes place in DPs removed from the collapse that are still in the light path to the observer. See

1. Standard cosmology cannot explain why the redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion.
2. Alternative cosmology based on QED induced redshift of optical and X-ray emission upon absorption in DPs explains both collapsing cluster galaxies and Supernova explosions.
3. The redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion because DPs cannot form in the high temperatures. In contrast, Supernovae explosions do produce DPs in proportion to the mass ejected.

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