Redshift by cosmic dust supports the death of the Big Bang Theory

The death of the Big Bang Theory predicted by Zwicky in 1929 and proclaimed by Marmet 20 years ago is supported today by QED induced redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust that negates Hubble’s expanding Universe based on the Doppler shift

The Big Bang theory is supported by (1) an expanding Universe based on the interpretation of redshifts of galaxy light as Doppler shifts, (2) the abundance of light elements like helium-4 and deuterium, and (3) the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at a temperature of about 3K as the relic of the Big Bang.

In 1990, Paul Marmet published an article in 21st Century, Science and Technology entitled “Big Bang Cosmology meets an astronomical death.” See Marmet argued that the abundance of light elements are produced during galaxy formation by nuclear reactions in the stars; the CMB radiation is simply Planck’s blackbody radiation emitted by an unlimited Universe at a temperature of about 3 K; and galaxy photons undergo a non-Doppler redshift and lose energy based on the Photon-Atom Theory.

Photon-Atom Theory is a variant of the Tired Light Theory proposed by Zwicky immediately after Hubble reported his redshift measurements in 1929. Zwicky contended that the redshift measured was caused by galaxy photons losing energy in colliding with cosmic dust particles (DPs) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Zwicky’s contention that the interpretation of Hubble’s redshift as a Doppler shift was fatally flawed marked the beginning of cosmological death of the Big Bang.

Criticism of Tired Light Theories
The absorption of galaxy photons in Marmet’s atoms and molecules is similar to that in Zwicky’s DPs in that both are Tired Light theories. See Critics dismiss Tired Light Theories by confusing the reddening of light by scattering with redshift caused by absorption. See The argument that scattered light is reddened and blurs images is valid, but critics need to understand that absorbed photons redshift galaxy light. Unlike scattered light, the light absorbed and re-emitted by gas molecules and DPs does not blur images.

Objects on Earth do not appear blurred even though light undergoes an uncountable number of absorptions with air molecules. Hence, Marmet claimed that most of galaxy light is absorbed and not scattered, and therefore photons lose energy by repeatedly being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms or molecules in the IGM. Marmet therefore concluded the non-Doppler redshift by IGM molecules was the likely explanation of the redshift observed by Hubble and not that by a Doppler shift leading to an expanding Universe in the Big Bang Theory.

QED Induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
QED induced redshift supports the death of the Big Bang Theory predicted by Zwicky and proclaimed by Marmet. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. QED induced redshift is a consequence of constraints on the conservation of energy imposed by quantum mechanics (QM). QM precludes submicron DPs from having the specific heat capacity necessary to conserve absorbed galaxy photons by an increase in temperature. Photons are created from the electromagnetic (EM) confinement of the absorbed galaxy photon within the solid DP. See thumbnail. This may be understood from QM by the QED induced creation of photons of wavelength Lo by supplying EM energy to a QM box with walls separated by Lo/2. For a galaxy photon absorbed in a spherical DP of diameter D, the QED photons are created at a wavelength Lo = 2nD, where n is the index of refraction of the DP. In the IGM, the DPs are generally amorphous silicate having n = 1.45 and diameters D < 0.5 microns. For D = 0.25 microns, the QED created photon has Lo = 0.745 microns, and therefore an absorbed Ly-alpha photon having L = 0.1216 microns is redshift to Z = (Lo – L)/L ~ 5. If the QED redshift in DPs is interpreted by Doppler shift, the galaxy recession velocity is 95 % of the speed of light when in fact the Universe is not expanding at all. See at “Dark Energy and Cosmic Dust” and “Reddening and Redshift,” 2009.

Comparison of QED Redshift with Tired Light Theory
Marmet and Zwicky contended that the redshift of galaxies generally increases with distance based on galaxy light continuosly losing energy by successive collisions with IGM molelcules. But QED redshift is prompt upon absorption of the galaxy photon in a single DP. QED redshift is therefore a more likely occurrence than the enormous number of collisions necessary to produce the same redshift by Photon-Atom Theory. Marmet estimated the energy loss in a single photon collision to be about 10 ^ -13 of the absorbed photon energy. For the Ly-alpha photon having a Planck energy of 10.2 eV, the energy loss per collision is about 10 ^ -12 eV. By QED redshift at Z = 5, the 0.25 micron diameter silicate DP redshifts the Ly-alpha photon to a red photon having Planck energy of 1.7 eV. By QED theory, the net redshift of 8.5 eV takes place in a single absorption. However, the Photon-Atom Theory requires about 8.5×10 ^12 collisions which is far more unlikely than a single collision by QED induced redshift.

QED redshift in DPs explain brightness in the Tolman test and time dilation in Supernova tests. In this regard, a critique of Doppler redshift from Hubble theory including Tired Light theories in relation to QED induced redshift is given in Moreover, QED redshift in DPs resolves the galaxy rotation problem and negates the need for MOND. See

Difference of QED Redshift and Tired Light Theory
The wavelength Lo emitted by a DP depends on the diameter and refractive index, and therefore the relative change in the wavelength L of the galaxy photon (Lo – L)/L is not constant: However, Tired Light theories claim a constant relative change in wavelength for all galaxy photon wavelengths consistent with Hubble’s Doppler shift. But there is no reason that non-Doppler and Doppler redshifts need to be the same. Nevertheless, QED redshift is still a Tired Light Theory. For galaxy photons of wavelength L redshift to Lo in a DP, the number of QED redshift photons created is the ratio of Lo/L and although greater than one is not likely an integer, and therefore QED redshift is similar to Tired Light Theories in that some galaxy photon energy is lost in DP absorptions as depicted in the thumbnail of Press Release in

QED Redshift of the Sun
Since 1907, spectroscopic measurements made of light from the Sun show the light from the limb to be redshift relative to that from center of the Sun’s disk beyond that which can be explained by the Doppler shift of the Sun’s rotation. Marmet claimed the redshift arises from the greater number of photon-atom collisions in the greater distance the light has to pass near the limb. Similarly, QED redshift also predicts the light form the limb to be redshift more than at its center because the greater distance contains a proportionally greater number of DPs.

1. The cosmological death of the Big Bang Theory proclaimed by Marmet about 20 years ago from the predictions by Zwicky some 60 years earlier is supported today by QED induced redshift in DPs.

2. Hubble’s redshift measurements have nothing to do with an expanding Universe.

3. QED redshift in a single DP interaction is far more likely than the enormous number of collisions required for the same redshift in the Photon-Atom Theory.

4. Tired Light Theories based on scattering produce blurring of the object image. Both Marmet’s Photon-Atom Theory and Zwicky’s DPs avoid this problem by the re-emission of absorbed galaxy photons. Similarly, QED redshift based on photon absorption in DPs does not produce blurring

Nanotrumpets Produce Sound from Joule Heat Without Temperature Fluctuations

Recent claims based on classical heat transfer that nanotrumpets produce sound from temperature fluctuations caused by Joule heating in passing electrical current through thin films are refuted by quantum mechanics.

Recently, the journal Nature published an article entitled Nanotherm Trumpets that claimed sound was produced from temperature fluctuations in passing electrical current through an array of nanometer thick aluminum films. The claim is based on classical heat transfer theory that assumes films under Joule heating increase in temperature to heat the surrounding air and produce the pressure in propagating the sound. High thermal conductivity of the films is thought to allow the Joule heat to be lost to the substrate, and therefore not contribute to the large temperature fluctuations necessary to produce sound. To avoid loss of Joule heat, reductions in bulk thermal conductivity are viewed as an important feature of the Nanotrumpets. Required reductions in thin film thermal conductivity are supported by scattering of electrons in the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). See “Nature Article” under, “Thermophone” at “Nanotrumpet Update”, 2010.

Classical Heat and QM Transfer
Quantum mechanics (QM) trumps the classical heat transfer theory claims that sound is produced from temperature fluctuations in nanometer thick films. QM precludes any fluctuations in the film temperatures because the specific heat given by the heat capacity of the atom vanishes in submicron films, and therefore there can be no heat flow through the thin film. Without heat flow, bulk conductivity may be retained in temperature solutions by Fourier’s heat conduction theory yielding isothermal temperatures without gradients. Hence, there are no temperature fluctuations in the film to heat the surrounding air and produce sound. Conversely, sound by QM is produced without temperature fluctuations by conserving the Joule heat by the emission of non-thermal electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the surfaces of the thin film. Pressure fluctuations producing the sound are caused by the absorption of the EM radiation in the surrounding air. The validity of classical heat transfer theory in thin films having submicron thicknesses was the subject of an earlier critique of the BTE. See…

QED induced EM Radiation
In general, QM precludes nanostructures of any form from conserving absorbed EM energy by an increase in temperature. See, 2009 and 2010. Instead, the absorbed EM energy is conserved by creating photons inside the nanostructure at its fundamental EM confinement frequency, the process called QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. The QED process is consistent with QM that asserts photons of wavelength L are spontaneously created upon supplying EM energy U to a QM box with walls separated by L/2. It is important to emphasize the QED photons are created inside the solid nanostructure where the velocity c of light is reduced by the refractive index n of the solid. For a thin film, the QED photons created in the thickness direction are under EM confinement at wavelength L = 2nT, where T is its thickness. The number N of QED photons created having Planck energy E is N = U/E, where E = hc/2nT and h is Planck’s constant. See Ibid.

With regard to the verification of QED radiations, the EM emission may be difficult to detect. Submicron thin films create QED photons having Planck energies in the ultraviolet (UV) and beyond, and therefore are beyond the typical cut-off of most photomultipliers. But verification is possible with thicker films, e.g., QED radiation in the near infrared (NIR) is emitted from films having supramicron thicknesses. Since Joule heat is typically low frequency EM radiation in the far infrared (FIR), thin films may be considered frequency up-conversion devices converting FIR to EM radiation from the NIR to the UV or beyond.

Comments on Nanotrumpet Claims

Reduced Conductivity Requirement The Nature article cites a recent paper by Niskanen et al. showing an array of 3 micron wide x 30 nm thick x 200 micron long aluminum wires (sic films) suspended above a silicon substrate by an air gap g of 1-2 microns. The claim that reducing the bulk conductivity Kal of aluminum is required to reduce heat loss to the substrate is unlikely because the air film insulates the film from the substrate. In fact, the thermal resistance R between the outer film surface and the substrate is the sum of R1 and R2, where R1 = T / Kal is the resistance of the thin aluminum film and R2 = g / Kair that of the air gap. For bulk aluminum and air, Kal = 240 W/mK wile air has Kair = 0.026 W/mK. The R1 and R2 resistances are then 1.25e-10 and 5e-5 sq-m K/W. Hence, the air gap and not the aluminum film limit the heat loss to the substrate. Even if the bulk conductivity of aluminum is reduced to 70W/mK as claimed by BTE theory, the resistance of the air film still controls the heat loss to the substrate. The conductivity of the thin film is therefore inconsequential to the sound produced by the Nanotrumpet.

BTE and Reduced Conductivity In support of the claim that the BTE reduces the bulk conductivity of aluminum, thereby reducing the heat loss to the substrate and enhancing the sound, the Nature article cites the BTE paper by Jin et al. that claims reductions in bulk conductivity of aluminum to 70 W/mK for a 30 nm thick film is close to that found in experiments. But this claim is unlikely because the reduced conductivities were computed based on an assumed 10K temperature difference across the thin film which is precluded by QM. Isothermally there is no temperature difference across the film, and therefore the BTE is consistent with QM by predicting no reduction in bulk conductivity. The BTE is therefore also inconsequential in producing sound from the Nanotrumpet.


1. Classical heat transfer that includes finite specific heat in thin films is not applicable to Nanotrumpets. Sound cannot be produced by temperature fluctuations that are precluded by QM.

2. Instead of producing temperature fluctuations, QM allows the Nanotrumpets to conserve the Joule heat by the emission of EM radiation that upon absorption in the surrounding air produces the sound.