Nanoparticles do not damage DNA across barriers by signaling molecules

Ionizing radiation emitted by nanoparticles damages the DNA by penetrating barriers instead of the nanoparticle signaling across the barrier for the DNA to be damaged

Damage by Nanoparticles
On November 4, scientists at the University of Bristol announced that nanoparticles (NPs) of cobalt-chromium damaged DNA on the other side of a cellular barrier. See The NPs did not cause the damage by passing through th DNA e barrier which is usually thought. Instead, the Bristol scientists claimed the NPs generated signaling molecules within the barrier cells that were then transmitted to cause damage in cells on the other side of barrier.

However, the NP signaling molecules to induce DNA damage is not likely. Setting aside the fact NPs are inanimate lacking the capability of biological signaling, it is more likely the NPs generate electromagnetic (EM) radiation that readily penetrates the molecular barrier to cause DNA damage. Even if the molecular barrier is replaced with a thin nanometer metal film, the EM radiation can penetrate the film and damage the DNA on the other side.

On October 18-22, at the IEEE Nanomed 2009 Conference in Taiwan, DNA damage was claimed caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced in NPs by quantum electrodynamics (QED). See “DNA damage update” Paper and Presentation at By this theory, water molecules in body fluids transfer upon collision thermal kT energy at infrared (IR) frequencies to the NPs. However, quantum mechanics (QM) forbids the NPs to have specific heat, and therefore the absorbed kT energy from collisions cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds as the IR radiation is induced by QED to be frequency up-converted to the EM confinement of the NP, typically at UV or even higher frequencies. Subsequently, the UV leaks to the surroundings to cause DNA damage.

NPs provide a significant antibacterial agent in food processing, reducing infections in burn treatment, sunscreen skin lotions, and treating cancer tumors. However, there is a darkside. Over the past decade, experiments have unequivocally shown NPs to induce DNA damage and mimic that by conventional ionizing radiation. See Ibid. What enables the NPs to function to benefit mankind while at the same time posing a health risk is the remarkable fact NPs naturally emit a low level source of continuous UV or higher EM radiation.

The NPs need not be irradiated with lasers, as only collisions with surrounding molecules are sufficient to produce ionizing radiation. The wavelength of the EM radiation is given by 2Dn, where D is the NP diameter, and n is its refractive index. In the Bristol tests, D ~ 30 nm and taking an average n ~ 2.3, the EM radiation had a wavelength of about 140 nm and Planck energy or 8.8 eV.

The DNA damage induced by NPs is a cancer risk if not properly repaired. Given that NPs naturally produce low levels of ionizing radiation beyond the UV from surrounding water molecules, and that natural and man-made NPs are ubiquitous, the conjecture may be made that NPs are the most likely cause of cancers in man. Given the increased risk of NPs producing cancer, the regulation of NPs is highly recommended.

The Sunyaev- Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift because of Cosmic Dust

Cosmic dust explains why the intensity of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift.

Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect
Collapsing cluster galaxies are implosions producing extremely energetic electrons at temperatures of about 10^8 K. Astronomers believe CMBR photons passing through the collapsing galaxies gain energy by collisions with these electrons and blue-shift by the inverse-Compton effect. Measurement of CMBR in the direction of a cluster of galaxies shows a measurable, but almost imperceptible distortion called the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). See e.g.,

The SZE shows the 20 to 1000 GHz microwave emission from collapsing cluster galaxies is virtually identical to the CMBR. The SZE spectrum shows a decrease in intensity at frequencies lower than around 218 GHz with an increase in intensity at higher frequencies. Although electrons at 10^8 K emit X-rays, the thermal distortion of the CMBR is only of the order of one-thousandth of a Kelvin in temperature. At a given frequency, the SZE intensity varies in brightness in proportion to the mass distribution within the cluster. The SZE is usually only associated with massive objects such as clusters of galaxies, i.e., a single galaxy has insufficient mass to cause measurable distortions in the SZE.

However, the most remarkable finding is the SZE intensity is independent of redshift Z

QED induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
Standard cosmology finds difficulty in explaining the independence of the brightness of the SZE intensity with Z. The SZE brightness during implosive cluster collapse should be no different than that from the explosive Supernova (SN) Type 1a expansion known to be proportional to Z. In fact, any time variation of light in any form including brightness of the SZE should be proportional to 1/(1+Z). See Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, 1972 and Blondin et al. at

Opinions are diverse of why this is so. Some astronomers think there is no redshift in the SZE because the inverse-Compton process based on scattering does not produce redshift. However, this cannot be correct because the CMBR photons are not redshift, but rather are blueshift in the SZE. In fact, the redshift measured in the SZE can only be caused by the optical and X-ray emission from the cluster galaxy collapse. The question may be asked:

Why do the explosive SN show redshift proportional to their magnitude while the implosive collapsing cluster galaxies do not show proportionality of the SZE to redshift?

In alternative cosmology, the question for collapsing galaxies may be answered by QED induced redshift of absorbed optical and X-ray photons in cosmic dust particles (DPs). Similar arguments have been made to explain the redshift from SN explosions. See and

By QED induced redshift in DPs, there is no conceptual difference between the Z of an exploding SN and an imploding cluster galaxy as both emit optical and X-ray photons that are absorbed in DPs. The DPs may be in or near the explosions or implosions including those distantly disposed in the light path to the observer. The only difference is the SN produce DPs that are proportional to the dust emission or magnitude of the SN explosions. In contrast, implosive cluster galaxy collapse does not produce DPs because temperatures in excess of 10^8 K preclude any dust formation. See .The Z in collapsing clusters is therefore independent of the SZE intensity because the absorption of optical and X-ray photons takes place in DPs removed from the collapse that are still in the light path to the observer. See

1. Standard cosmology cannot explain why the redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion.
2. Alternative cosmology based on QED induced redshift of optical and X-ray emission upon absorption in DPs explains both collapsing cluster galaxies and Supernova explosions.
3. The redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion because DPs cannot form in the high temperatures. In contrast, Supernovae explosions do produce DPs in proportion to the mass ejected.