Materials at the nanoscale have zero specific heat

Specific heat theories of Debye’s phonons and Einstein’s atomic vibrations including modification thereof by Raman are modified by quantum mechanics to include zero specific heat at the nanoscale.


Specific heat is thought to be an intensive thermophysical property independent of the amount of the substance. Given the amount of the substance in a body is proportional to its volume, specific heat should therefore be independent of whether the body dimensions are macroscopic or nanoscopic. In contrast, specific heat that depends on the amount of the substance is an extensive property dependent on the dimensions of the body. See

Classical Specific Heat at the Nanoscale

Currently, specific heat at the nanoscale is considered an intensive property having the same value as for macroscopic bodies. The Debye and Einstein macroscopic theories of specific heat including modifications thereof by Raman are generally assumed in simulating heat transfer in nanostructures. See Thumbnail of “Macroscopic Specific Heat at the Nanoscale?”in What this means is the classical oscillators of statistical mechanics all having the same kT energy are used to model specific heat at the nanoscale.

Specific Heat by Quantum Mechanics

Contrarily, quantum mechanics (QM) embodied in the Einstein-Hopf relation for the harmonic oscillator shows the QM states do not have the same kT energy. At ambient temperature, the average Planck energy of QM states is kT only at thermal wavelengths greater than about 50 microns while at shorter wavelengths is less than kT and vanishes for nanostructures at submicron wavelengths. See Paper and Presentation at at “Zero Specific Heat”, 2010.

Since the Planck energy at a given wavelength is the amount of thermal energy that can be stored in the QM oscillator, and since the only thermal wavelengths that can fit into nanostructures are submicron, QM requires zero specific heat capacity at the nanoscale, the consequence of which is absorbed heat cannot be conserved in nanostructures by an increase in temperature. Conservation may only proceed by the QED induced frequency up-conversion of absorbed heat to non-thermal EM radiation at the fundamental EM confinement frequency of the nanostructure, typically in the UV and beyond. The EM confinement is quasi-bound allowing leakage of QED induced radiation from the nanostructure to be absorbed in the macroscopic surroundings. See Ibid.

But QED emission in the UV and beyond from nanostructures is not readily observed – even by standard photomultipliers because of the UV cut-off, and therefore heat balances of nanostructures do not include QED emissions as heat losses. Hence, thermal conductivity is inferred to be reduced from that of the bulk to be consistent with the measured temperature difference across the body, e.g., as in thin films. If QED emissions are included in heat losses, the bulk conductivity need not be reduced for consistency with temperature differences thereby precluding any modification of Fourier’s theory of heat conduction by the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). See Ibid.

Molecular Dynamics and Periodic Boundaries

Molecular Dynamics (MD) describes the classical solution of atomic motion based on Newton’s equations. To determine bulk transport properties, there are no QM restrictions on kT energy of atoms, i.e., atoms are assumed to have kT energy because the MD solution for the bulk is obtained by imposing periodic boundary conditions on the computational box. Historically, Monte Carlo (MC) preceded MD simulations, however. MC simulations of spherical particles in a submicron computational square with periodic boundaries were used to determine the 2D virial coefficients for the PVT equation of state. See Metropolis et al. Ibid. For a discrete nanostructure, periodic boundaries do not apply, and therefore the atoms in the nanostructure are subject to QM restrictions of zero kT energy.

Heat transfer of discrete nanostructures which are unambiguously not periodic is generally simulated by MD on the invalid assumption the atoms have kT energy. For nanocars, see e.g., Extending specific heat from macroscopic samples to the nanoscale is just as invalid as extending the Dulong-Petit law for specific heat at ambient temperature to low temperatures about 200 years ago. Nevertheless, MD simulations of nanostructures today are proudly displayed in the belief they provide precise atomistic explanations of conduction heat transfer when in fact they are not valid because the simulations are performed on the assumption the atoms have finite kT energy. See


1. QM requires zero specific heat capacity at the nanoscale be specified as a new thermophysical property of all materials.

2. The classification of specific heat as an intensive thermophysical property of a body should be changed to an extensive property depending on the dimensions of the body.

3. Nanoscale heat transfer based on the assumption of macroscopic specific heat is likely to produce unphysical results, e.g., reduced thermal conductivity in thin films.

4. There is no need for the BTE to determine the thermal conductivity in thin films as bulk conductivity may be assumed without any loss in accuracy.

5. Macroscopic Debye and Einstein theories should be revised to include zero specific heat at the nanoscale.

6. Lacking specific heat at the nanoscale, absorbed EM energy is not conserved by an increase in temperature, but rather by the emission of non-thermal QED induced EM radiation.

7. MD and MC simulations of bulk thermal conductivity based on full kT energy of atoms in submicron computational boxes under periodic boundary conditions are consistent with QM.

8. Zero specific heat is required for atoms in MD and MC simulations of discrete nanostructures without periodic constraints.

9. Absorbed EM energy in discrete nanostructures may be a priori assumed to be emitted as high frequency EM radiation that and absorbed in the macroscopic surroundings, thereby obviating any need to perform MD and MC simulations of the nanostructure itself.

Redshift by cosmic dust supports the death of the Big Bang Theory

The death of the Big Bang Theory predicted by Zwicky in 1929 and proclaimed by Marmet 20 years ago is supported today by QED induced redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust that negates Hubble’s expanding Universe based on the Doppler shift

The Big Bang theory is supported by (1) an expanding Universe based on the interpretation of redshifts of galaxy light as Doppler shifts, (2) the abundance of light elements like helium-4 and deuterium, and (3) the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at a temperature of about 3K as the relic of the Big Bang.

In 1990, Paul Marmet published an article in 21st Century, Science and Technology entitled “Big Bang Cosmology meets an astronomical death.” See Marmet argued that the abundance of light elements are produced during galaxy formation by nuclear reactions in the stars; the CMB radiation is simply Planck’s blackbody radiation emitted by an unlimited Universe at a temperature of about 3 K; and galaxy photons undergo a non-Doppler redshift and lose energy based on the Photon-Atom Theory.

Photon-Atom Theory is a variant of the Tired Light Theory proposed by Zwicky immediately after Hubble reported his redshift measurements in 1929. Zwicky contended that the redshift measured was caused by galaxy photons losing energy in colliding with cosmic dust particles (DPs) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Zwicky’s contention that the interpretation of Hubble’s redshift as a Doppler shift was fatally flawed marked the beginning of cosmological death of the Big Bang.

Criticism of Tired Light Theories
The absorption of galaxy photons in Marmet’s atoms and molecules is similar to that in Zwicky’s DPs in that both are Tired Light theories. See Critics dismiss Tired Light Theories by confusing the reddening of light by scattering with redshift caused by absorption. See The argument that scattered light is reddened and blurs images is valid, but critics need to understand that absorbed photons redshift galaxy light. Unlike scattered light, the light absorbed and re-emitted by gas molecules and DPs does not blur images.

Objects on Earth do not appear blurred even though light undergoes an uncountable number of absorptions with air molecules. Hence, Marmet claimed that most of galaxy light is absorbed and not scattered, and therefore photons lose energy by repeatedly being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms or molecules in the IGM. Marmet therefore concluded the non-Doppler redshift by IGM molecules was the likely explanation of the redshift observed by Hubble and not that by a Doppler shift leading to an expanding Universe in the Big Bang Theory.

QED Induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
QED induced redshift supports the death of the Big Bang Theory predicted by Zwicky and proclaimed by Marmet. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. QED induced redshift is a consequence of constraints on the conservation of energy imposed by quantum mechanics (QM). QM precludes submicron DPs from having the specific heat capacity necessary to conserve absorbed galaxy photons by an increase in temperature. Photons are created from the electromagnetic (EM) confinement of the absorbed galaxy photon within the solid DP. See thumbnail. This may be understood from QM by the QED induced creation of photons of wavelength Lo by supplying EM energy to a QM box with walls separated by Lo/2. For a galaxy photon absorbed in a spherical DP of diameter D, the QED photons are created at a wavelength Lo = 2nD, where n is the index of refraction of the DP. In the IGM, the DPs are generally amorphous silicate having n = 1.45 and diameters D < 0.5 microns. For D = 0.25 microns, the QED created photon has Lo = 0.745 microns, and therefore an absorbed Ly-alpha photon having L = 0.1216 microns is redshift to Z = (Lo – L)/L ~ 5. If the QED redshift in DPs is interpreted by Doppler shift, the galaxy recession velocity is 95 % of the speed of light when in fact the Universe is not expanding at all. See at “Dark Energy and Cosmic Dust” and “Reddening and Redshift,” 2009.

Comparison of QED Redshift with Tired Light Theory
Marmet and Zwicky contended that the redshift of galaxies generally increases with distance based on galaxy light continuosly losing energy by successive collisions with IGM molelcules. But QED redshift is prompt upon absorption of the galaxy photon in a single DP. QED redshift is therefore a more likely occurrence than the enormous number of collisions necessary to produce the same redshift by Photon-Atom Theory. Marmet estimated the energy loss in a single photon collision to be about 10 ^ -13 of the absorbed photon energy. For the Ly-alpha photon having a Planck energy of 10.2 eV, the energy loss per collision is about 10 ^ -12 eV. By QED redshift at Z = 5, the 0.25 micron diameter silicate DP redshifts the Ly-alpha photon to a red photon having Planck energy of 1.7 eV. By QED theory, the net redshift of 8.5 eV takes place in a single absorption. However, the Photon-Atom Theory requires about 8.5×10 ^12 collisions which is far more unlikely than a single collision by QED induced redshift.

QED redshift in DPs explain brightness in the Tolman test and time dilation in Supernova tests. In this regard, a critique of Doppler redshift from Hubble theory including Tired Light theories in relation to QED induced redshift is given in Moreover, QED redshift in DPs resolves the galaxy rotation problem and negates the need for MOND. See

Difference of QED Redshift and Tired Light Theory
The wavelength Lo emitted by a DP depends on the diameter and refractive index, and therefore the relative change in the wavelength L of the galaxy photon (Lo – L)/L is not constant: However, Tired Light theories claim a constant relative change in wavelength for all galaxy photon wavelengths consistent with Hubble’s Doppler shift. But there is no reason that non-Doppler and Doppler redshifts need to be the same. Nevertheless, QED redshift is still a Tired Light Theory. For galaxy photons of wavelength L redshift to Lo in a DP, the number of QED redshift photons created is the ratio of Lo/L and although greater than one is not likely an integer, and therefore QED redshift is similar to Tired Light Theories in that some galaxy photon energy is lost in DP absorptions as depicted in the thumbnail of Press Release in

QED Redshift of the Sun
Since 1907, spectroscopic measurements made of light from the Sun show the light from the limb to be redshift relative to that from center of the Sun’s disk beyond that which can be explained by the Doppler shift of the Sun’s rotation. Marmet claimed the redshift arises from the greater number of photon-atom collisions in the greater distance the light has to pass near the limb. Similarly, QED redshift also predicts the light form the limb to be redshift more than at its center because the greater distance contains a proportionally greater number of DPs.

1. The cosmological death of the Big Bang Theory proclaimed by Marmet about 20 years ago from the predictions by Zwicky some 60 years earlier is supported today by QED induced redshift in DPs.

2. Hubble’s redshift measurements have nothing to do with an expanding Universe.

3. QED redshift in a single DP interaction is far more likely than the enormous number of collisions required for the same redshift in the Photon-Atom Theory.

4. Tired Light Theories based on scattering produce blurring of the object image. Both Marmet’s Photon-Atom Theory and Zwicky’s DPs avoid this problem by the re-emission of absorbed galaxy photons. Similarly, QED redshift based on photon absorption in DPs does not produce blurring

Nanotrumpets Produce Sound from Joule Heat Without Temperature Fluctuations

Recent claims based on classical heat transfer that nanotrumpets produce sound from temperature fluctuations caused by Joule heating in passing electrical current through thin films are refuted by quantum mechanics.

Recently, the journal Nature published an article entitled Nanotherm Trumpets that claimed sound was produced from temperature fluctuations in passing electrical current through an array of nanometer thick aluminum films. The claim is based on classical heat transfer theory that assumes films under Joule heating increase in temperature to heat the surrounding air and produce the pressure in propagating the sound. High thermal conductivity of the films is thought to allow the Joule heat to be lost to the substrate, and therefore not contribute to the large temperature fluctuations necessary to produce sound. To avoid loss of Joule heat, reductions in bulk thermal conductivity are viewed as an important feature of the Nanotrumpets. Required reductions in thin film thermal conductivity are supported by scattering of electrons in the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). See “Nature Article” under, “Thermophone” at “Nanotrumpet Update”, 2010.

Classical Heat and QM Transfer
Quantum mechanics (QM) trumps the classical heat transfer theory claims that sound is produced from temperature fluctuations in nanometer thick films. QM precludes any fluctuations in the film temperatures because the specific heat given by the heat capacity of the atom vanishes in submicron films, and therefore there can be no heat flow through the thin film. Without heat flow, bulk conductivity may be retained in temperature solutions by Fourier’s heat conduction theory yielding isothermal temperatures without gradients. Hence, there are no temperature fluctuations in the film to heat the surrounding air and produce sound. Conversely, sound by QM is produced without temperature fluctuations by conserving the Joule heat by the emission of non-thermal electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the surfaces of the thin film. Pressure fluctuations producing the sound are caused by the absorption of the EM radiation in the surrounding air. The validity of classical heat transfer theory in thin films having submicron thicknesses was the subject of an earlier critique of the BTE. See…

QED induced EM Radiation
In general, QM precludes nanostructures of any form from conserving absorbed EM energy by an increase in temperature. See, 2009 and 2010. Instead, the absorbed EM energy is conserved by creating photons inside the nanostructure at its fundamental EM confinement frequency, the process called QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. The QED process is consistent with QM that asserts photons of wavelength L are spontaneously created upon supplying EM energy U to a QM box with walls separated by L/2. It is important to emphasize the QED photons are created inside the solid nanostructure where the velocity c of light is reduced by the refractive index n of the solid. For a thin film, the QED photons created in the thickness direction are under EM confinement at wavelength L = 2nT, where T is its thickness. The number N of QED photons created having Planck energy E is N = U/E, where E = hc/2nT and h is Planck’s constant. See Ibid.

With regard to the verification of QED radiations, the EM emission may be difficult to detect. Submicron thin films create QED photons having Planck energies in the ultraviolet (UV) and beyond, and therefore are beyond the typical cut-off of most photomultipliers. But verification is possible with thicker films, e.g., QED radiation in the near infrared (NIR) is emitted from films having supramicron thicknesses. Since Joule heat is typically low frequency EM radiation in the far infrared (FIR), thin films may be considered frequency up-conversion devices converting FIR to EM radiation from the NIR to the UV or beyond.

Comments on Nanotrumpet Claims

Reduced Conductivity Requirement The Nature article cites a recent paper by Niskanen et al. showing an array of 3 micron wide x 30 nm thick x 200 micron long aluminum wires (sic films) suspended above a silicon substrate by an air gap g of 1-2 microns. The claim that reducing the bulk conductivity Kal of aluminum is required to reduce heat loss to the substrate is unlikely because the air film insulates the film from the substrate. In fact, the thermal resistance R between the outer film surface and the substrate is the sum of R1 and R2, where R1 = T / Kal is the resistance of the thin aluminum film and R2 = g / Kair that of the air gap. For bulk aluminum and air, Kal = 240 W/mK wile air has Kair = 0.026 W/mK. The R1 and R2 resistances are then 1.25e-10 and 5e-5 sq-m K/W. Hence, the air gap and not the aluminum film limit the heat loss to the substrate. Even if the bulk conductivity of aluminum is reduced to 70W/mK as claimed by BTE theory, the resistance of the air film still controls the heat loss to the substrate. The conductivity of the thin film is therefore inconsequential to the sound produced by the Nanotrumpet.

BTE and Reduced Conductivity In support of the claim that the BTE reduces the bulk conductivity of aluminum, thereby reducing the heat loss to the substrate and enhancing the sound, the Nature article cites the BTE paper by Jin et al. that claims reductions in bulk conductivity of aluminum to 70 W/mK for a 30 nm thick film is close to that found in experiments. But this claim is unlikely because the reduced conductivities were computed based on an assumed 10K temperature difference across the thin film which is precluded by QM. Isothermally there is no temperature difference across the film, and therefore the BTE is consistent with QM by predicting no reduction in bulk conductivity. The BTE is therefore also inconsequential in producing sound from the Nanotrumpet.


1. Classical heat transfer that includes finite specific heat in thin films is not applicable to Nanotrumpets. Sound cannot be produced by temperature fluctuations that are precluded by QM.

2. Instead of producing temperature fluctuations, QM allows the Nanotrumpets to conserve the Joule heat by the emission of EM radiation that upon absorption in the surrounding air produces the sound.

Nanocars are powered by electrostatic forces from QED induced charges

Nanocars comprising fullerene spherical wheels on hydrocarbon axles are shown to move on substrates by electrostatic forces from charges produced by quantum electrodynamics (QED)

Nanocars evolved from research that began over a decade ago. At the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, synthetic molecules (S-molecules) on a metal substrate were moved in a controlled and repeatable manner by pushing them with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). See … .

The S-molecules included an organic molecule called porphyrin comprising a ring of atoms about 1.5 nanometers in diameter with a metal atom at its center. Groups of hydrocarbons were added to the porphyrin to provide four leg supports. The function of the legs was thought to allow the S-molecule to grip the surface to stabilize random thermal motion. Friction between the legs and the substrate could not have been significant because upon nudging with the STM tip the S-molecules appeared as though they were on rollers.

Quantum Mechanics Explanation
The S-molecule motion may be explained by quantum mechanics (QM). The Einstein-Hopf relationship for the QM harmonic oscillator shows the thermal kT energy of an atom at ambient temperature resides in the far infrared (FIR) beyond 50 microns. Here, k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is absolute temperature. But the S-molecule by its size excludes all thermal radiation beyond a few nanometers, and therefore lacks the heat capacity to conserve the FIR heat absorbed from the contact of the legs with the substrate by an increase in temperature. Upon contact of the legs with the substrate, the S-molecule becomes a part of a macroscopic body that by QM is allowed to have kT energy. But in moving, the S-molecule breaks contact to be momentarily isolated from the substrate, and therefore has excess kT energy above the vanishing small amount allowed by QM.

Lacking heat capacity, the S-molecule cannot conserve the excess kT energy by an increase in temperature. Conservation therefore may only proceed by the QED induced frequency up-conversion of the excess kT energy in the FIR to the electromagnetic (EM) confinement frequency of the S-molecule, which at ultraviolet (UV) levels and beyond has the Planck energy to charge the S-molecule by the photoelectric effect.

The QED induced charge only produces momentary electrostatic interactions. Nevertheless, the S-molecule is held to the substrate by momentary electrostatic attraction instead of by gripping as initially thought. Lateral motion depends on the momentary electrostatic interaction with its neighbors. In a random arrangement of S-molecules, the electrostatic interactions are not symmetric and on that basis alone may initiate motion. Moreover, lateral motion over the substrate occurs by intermittent stick-slip, but small friction at contacts makes it appear as though the S-molecule is on rollers. Regardless, contact neutralizes the charge on the S-molecule and allows the kT energy to be reacquired from the substrate to allow subsequent breaking of contact to produce QED charge. During stick-slip motion, the intermittent QED induced charge occurs very rapidly and may be difficult to detect.

Today, nanocars moving on substrates are more complex than the S-molecules, but the QED charging is the same. Currently, many research groups are engaged in nanocar research typified by Rice University. See ….

In QED charging, nanocars like S-molecules are powered by converting EM energy into mechanical motion. The EM energy may take various forms of heating including light, thermal, Joule, and electron beams. Indeed, nanocars have been shown to move by simply heating the substrate, the form of heat being the same thermal kT energy driving the earlier S-molecules. In effect, nanocars act as FIR to higher frequency up-conversion devices that charge the nanocars by producing momentary electrostatic repulsive forces that produce the observed nanocar motions. Similar arguments allow QED charges to explain the motions of molecular motors under Joule and electron beam heating. See at “Nanocars by Quantum Mechanics”, 2010.

Molecular Dynamics
Unfortunately, the QED charging by which thermal kT energy is converted into powering the nanocar is not included in a conventional MD solution that implicitly assumes atoms have kT energy at the nanoscale. Valid MD simulations in heat transfer need to specify vanishing kT energy in the MD computational algorithms, and if so included would give isothermal temperature solutions. The invalidity of MD in heat transfer at the nanoscale is widespread, e.g., in tribology, see ; whereas, in nanocars, see

MD is not needed for heat transfer at the nanoscale because temperature solutions are, a priori known to be isothermal. However, QED induced charging in nanostructures can and should be included in MD simulations of dynamic response, at least within the restrictions of Newton’s equations.


1. Nanostructures including S-molecules, nanocars, CNT motors and the like act as frequency up-conversion devices that are charged from QED radiation by the photoelectric effect, thereby allowing pair-wise interactions by momentary electrostatic repulsion.

2. MD simulations of heat transfer in nanocars are precluded by QM. At ambient temperature, the thermal heat capacity resides in the FIR beyond 50 microns, and therefore nanocars by their size exclude the heat capacity necessary for heat transfer. MD simulations of heat transfer in nanostructures are simply meaningless.

3. Unlike heat transfer, MD simulations are valid if directed to deriving the dynamic response of nanostructures on substrates under momentary QED induced charges.

Quantum Mechanics In Submicron Thin Metal Films Allows Conversion of the Full Solar Spectrum To Electricity

Quantum mechanics allows heat absorbed in submicron thin metal films over the full solar spectrum to be converted to electrical current by the photoelectric effect.

In 1901, Nikola Tesla described the photoelectric effect in US patent “Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy.” Charging was accomplished by using a metal plate exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. If applied to solar cells, a polished insulated metal plate will gain a positive charge as electrons ejected from the UV content in sunlight are continually drained to a capacitor. See In his patent, Tesla noted that as the radiation falls on the metal plate, the capacitor will charge indefinitely. One of Tesla’s many US and Foreign patents is shown below.

Today, solar cells are generally not based on Tesla’s photoelectric effect. Instead, the photovoltaic (PV) effect is used where lower intensity visible (VIS) light moves electrons out of the valence band of semiconductors into higher-energy conduction bands, thereby producing electric current at a voltage related to the band-gap energy. But with PV’s made from single crystal or multi crystal semiconductors, the materials comprise up to 40% of the unit cost. Because of this, PV solar cells comprising very thin films of amorphous silicon or copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) are of great interest because the thin films allow many more cells to be made with the same material, thereby significantly lowering costs. But unlike Tesla’s metal plate that absorbs almost all VIS and UV radiation, semiconductor and CIGS at thin film thicknesses lack the absorption necessary to efficiently capture the full solar spectrm. Organic PV cells now being considered in thin film technology are limited to thicknesses of about 3 microns. See Hong Kong Winter School on Solar Cells at

Moreover, thin film PV cells are usually limited to the VIS part of the solar spectrum. Infrared (IR) light with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300 microns cannot be utilized in PV cells by moving electrons between the valence and conduction bands or by ejecting electrons from metals by Tesla’s photoelectric effect. Nevertheless, IR light comprises a large fraction of sunlight that is lost in the PV solar cells. At sea level, bright sunlight provides about 1000 watts per square meter at sea level. Of this, 527 watts is IR with 445 and 32 watts per square meter in the VIS and UV, respectively.

Submicron Thin Metal Films
Thin film PV technology based on silicon, CIGS, and organic materials is conceptually limited because solar radiation cannot be efficiently absorbed in thicknesses less than about 3 microns. However, thin metal films absorb from the UV to the IR even at submicron thicknesses. In effect, all solar radiation is absorbed in metals, but in thicknesses of a more than a few microns is converted to heat. Neither PV’s or Tesla’s photoelectric effect convert heat to electricity, and therefore another mechanism is required to allow thin metal films to efficiently function at solar cells.

QED Induced Radiation
QED induced radiation allows heat absorbed in thin metal films over the full solar spectrum to be converted to electricity. Here QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. In effect, Tesla’s photoelectric effect is extended to submicron thin film technology. How heat absorbed is converted to electrical current can be understood by quantum mechanics

Classically, heat is transferred by convection, radiation, and conduction, but in thin films is restricted by quantum mechanics to vanishing heat capacity in the thickness direction. Although the specific heat remains at macroscopic values in the in-plane directions, this is inconsequential because there is little if any in-plane temperature changes. See at “Nanofluids and Thin Films”, 2009.

Quantum Mechanics Restrictions
The quantum mechanics restriction is described in the Einstein-Hopf relation for the harmonic oscillator that shows the average Planck energy of an atom at temperature is dispersed with wavelength. At room temperature, the thermal kT energy of the oscillator rapidly vanishes below wavelengths of about 50 microns, and therefore submicron thin films lack heat capacity because their thickness excludes all thermal wavelengths beyond about 1 micron. Here k is Boltzmann’s constant and T absolute temperature. What this means is all solar radiation irrespective of its wavelength that is absorbed in submicron thin films cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature.

Conservation of absorbed Solar Radiation
Nevertheless, the absorbed heat must be conserved. Typically, submicron thin films have EM confinement frequencies in the thickness direction beyond the UV. Here EM stands for electromagnetic. Since heat is low frequency EM energy, conservation may proceed by inducing the heat by QED to be frequency up-converted to levels beyond the UV. In effect, submicron thin films act as frequency up-conversion devices converting VIS and IR solar radiation to UV radiation that has the Planck energy that charges the film by Tesla’s photoelectric effect. In contrast, thin metal films having thicknesses greater than a few microns increase in temperature upon absorbing solar radiation and are inconsequential in solar energy conversion.


1. Thin film technology in PV solar cells is conceptually limited because silicon, CIGS, and organic materials lack the absorption of solar radiation at thicknesses less than about 3 microns.

2. Metal thin films regardless of thickness allow absorption of solar radiation from the UV through the VIS to the IR.

3. Thin metal films having thicknesses greater than a few microns increase in temperature upon the absorption of solar radiation. But in submicron thin films, quantum mechanics precludes the conservation of absorbed solar radiation by an increase in temperature.

4. Conservation of absorbed solar energy in submicron thin metal films may only proceed by QED induced frequency up-conversion to the EM confinement frequency of the thin film in the thickness direction, the latter in the UV and beyond.

5. Thin metal films induce the QED up-conversion of absorbed VIS and IR radiation to UV levels and beyond necessary to free electrons and charge the thin metal film. Without QED induced radiation, the VIS and IR lack the Planck energy to free electrons and produce electrical current.

6. The consequence of QED induced radiation is that submicron thin metal films by Tesla’s photoelectric effect offer the possibility of utilizing the full solar spectrum to produce electrical current.

Nanoparticles emit EM radiation to enhance thermal conductivity and boiling heat transfer

The emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by nanoparticles (NPs) resolves the paradox of enhanced critical heat flux (CHF) without increasing the boiling heat transfer (BHT) coefficient.

Nuclear reactors and power plants rely on the continuous formation of bubbles in boiling to limit surface temperatures, the efficiency of which is quantified in terms of the coefficient of BHT. High BHT means more heat can be supplied to a surface, but there is a limit. As more heat is supplied, instead of forming bubbles, a vapor forms on the surface that acts as a thermal insulator causing the temperature to increase beyond safe limits. The heat flux defined as the quantity of heat per unit area of the surface area is then said to have reached a critical value called the critical heat flux (CHF). For water and other coolants, classical heat transfer holds that the CHF should increase or decrease in proportional to the BHT coefficient.

However, classical heat transfer is not valid for nanofluids. Nanofluids are comprised of submicron NPs in a coolant, the heat capacity of NPs limited by quantum mechanics (QM). Experiments over the past decade show the QM effect as NPs in diverse coolants provide significant enhancements in thermal conductivity, although the volume fraction of NPs is paradoxically insignificant. Nanofluids in BHT are only more recently studied, e.g., the proposed nanofluid is alumina NPs in nuclear reactors. But the fraction of NPs is again very small, say < 1% by volume, and therefore like the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the CHF and the BHT coefficient of the nanofluid are not expected to be enhanced over the pure water. Contrarily, experiments show enhanced CHF, but the BHT coefficients paradoxically remain about the same.

Heat Transfer by Quantum Mechanics
QM argues that classical heat transfer theory cannot explain the paradox of an enhanced CHF without increased BHT coefficient for nanofluids anymore than classical theory could explain the significant increase in thermal conductivity found for insignificant volume fractions of NPs in nanofluids without boiling. See at “Nanofluids and Thin Films”, 2009.

Without boiling, NPs in nanofluids gain kT energy from collisions with coolant molecules. Here, k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is absolute temperature. At 300 K, the kT energy of the atoms in NPs resides in the far infrared (FIR). In contrast, atoms in NPs under BHT collide with heated surfaces having temperatures as high as 1300K where the thermal kT energy of the atom resides is in the near infrared (NIR).Regardless, QM argues NPs are submicron and by their size exclude NIR and FIR radiation. Indeed, the Planck energy of the harmonic oscillator vanishes for submicron NPs, and therefore the NPs lack the heat capacity necessary to conserve the absorption of heat by an increase in temperature.

The NPs lacking heat capacity nevertheless are required to conserve the absorbed kT energy. In BHT, the kT energy in the NIR extracted by the NP in collisions with heated surfaces may only proceed by QED induced frequency up-conversion to the optical EM confinement frequency of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. QED requires the low frequency NIR photons to be optically confined within the submicron NP geometry. Squeezing NIR photons in NPs treated as a QM box increases their frequency to UV levels and beyond. But the EM optical confinement is quasi-bound and the UV leaks to and is absorbed by the surrounding water.

Resolution of Paradox
The CHF-BHT paradox is thereby explained by the NPs converting kT energy gained upon colliding with the heated surface to UV emission that is absorbed the surrounding water. In this way, QM trumps classical heat transfer theory by the UV bypassing the bubble boiling process and allowing CHF enhancement without increasing the BHT coefficient. UV sensitive fluorescent water soluble markers are recommended as a means of verifying the correctness of QED induced heat transfer in BHT. See Press Release


1. Enhanced CHF in nanofluids without an increase in BHT coefficient is caused by the EM radiation emitted by NPs bypassing the bubble boiling process.

2. Classical heat transfer theory does not apply to NPs. The QM size effect precludes the conservation of absorbed thermal kT energy in NPs by an increase in temperature.

3. Conservation of absorbed EM energy by NPs may only proceed by the QED induced frequency up-conversion of kT energy in the NIR and FIR to the EM confinement optic al frequency of the NP, the latter in the UV and beyond.

4. Classically, the EM radiation in the FIR at 300 K at any point in the coolant is considered the same in all directions. QM alters this classical picture by converting the FIR to UV and higher EM radiation that penetrates further than the FIR would without NPs. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of a nanofluid is enhanced above that of the coolant alone.

Cosmic dust holds in question the period-luminosity relation in Cepheid stars

The Cepheid period-luminosity relation that claims stars with long periods are brighter than those with short periods including measurements of the distance to the star based on the Baade-Wesselink method are placed in question by cosmic dust.

Period-Luminosity Relationship
The Cepheids are stars 5-20 times as massive as the sun with dim to bright periodic pulsations. In the early 1900’s, the period-luminosity relationship of Cepheids was first reported by Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard Observatory. See Stars with longer periods were thought brighter than those with shorter-periods. Since the stars in the same distant clouds are about the same distance from the Earth, any difference in apparent magnitude was therefore thought related to a difference in absolute magnitude.

Helium Heat Engine Mechanism
In 1917, Eddington proposed the mechanism for the Cepheid pulsation was a heat engine using helium as the working fluid. See thumbnail (TN) showing the dim and bright images from the Cepheid’s cycle. But Zhevakin in 1953 identified doubly ionized helium as the valve for the engine. See At the dim part of a Cepheid’s cycle, the ionized gas in the outer layers of the star is considered opaque, and so is heated by the star’s radiation, and due to the increased temperature, begins to expand. As the helium expands, it cools, and so becomes less ionized and therefore more transparent, allowing the radiation to escape. Then the expansion stops, and reverses due to the star’s gravitational attraction. The process then repeats itself.

The problem with the Cepheid mechanism is that ionized helium is not opaque, at least not to red light. The TN shows the dim part of the cycle to be clear and distinct with a faint red halo while the bright part is red-spotted and fuzzy. Neutral or ionized helium atoms should produce clear and distinct images for both dim and bright parts of the cycle. Only the lumpiness of the mass ejected from a Cepheid explosion would make the bright image spotted and fuzzy. In this regard, the Cepheids find similarity with the explosions of Supernova where the redshift of light emission is proportional to the mass ejected. See

Proposed Cepheid Mechanism
The proposed mechanism of Cepheid pulsation is similar to the explosion of Supernova, except Cepheid explosions are smaller in magnitude and periodic. The visible (VIS) light in the TN is not produced by the Cepheid radiation heating the ejected mass, but rather by QED induced radiation in submicron cosmic dust particles (DPs) that accompany the ejected mass. Ibid. But unlike the Supernovae, the mass ejected from the Cepheid is returned by gravitational attraction, except for a small fraction of DPs that produce the faint red halo in the dim image of the TN. In contrast, the fuzziness in the bright image is caused by lumpiness of the mass ejected from the Cepheid. Infrared (IR) radiation is also produced by QED induced UV radiation in larger micron sized DP. By this theory, the dim part of the Cepheid cycle is clear and distinct because the DPs have mostly been returned to the star surface by gravity. IR from thermal radiation by heating DPs with UV to produce the 40-500 K temperatures necessary to explain the excess in IR is not necessary because QED induced emission creates the IR from DPs without an increase in temperature.

QED Induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
QED induced radiation produces VIS and IR photons from the redshift of UV radiation from the Cepheid. Upon the absorption of UV photons at wavelength L by the DPs, QED creates photons of wavelength Lo = 2nD, where n is the refractive index and D the diameter of the DP. E.g, the red photons of wavelength Lo = 0.675 microns in the TN are created from UV at L = 0.25 microns absorbed in DPs having D = 0.25 micron and n = 1.35. The red photon is created by redshifting the UV photon to Z = (Lo-L)/L = 1.7. In larger DPs having D > 1 micron, the UV is induced by QED to create IR photons with Lo > 1 micron at Z >3. All QED induced VIS and IR radiation is produced in DPs without an increase in temperature.

Similarity of DPs in Cepheids with Supernova Explosions
The mass ejected from Cepheids is similar to that from Supernova explosions. See Deasy and Butler, “Evidence for mass loss from IRAS observations of classical Cepheids,” Unlike Supernova, the Cepheid period-luminosity relationship does not include any explicit correction for DPs. Since the brightness of a star is inversely proportional to the concentration of DPs in the mass ejected, stars having the maximum absolute magnitude should produce greater quantities of DPs that tend to reduce brightness. It is therefore not obvious that the Cepheid period-luminosity relationship is valid. In fact, Cepheids with long and short periods most likely have absolute magnitudes that may be far greater than observed. Only in the unlikely event DPs are not present in the Cepheid surroundings is the period-luminosity relationship valid. DPs therefore hold in question the period-luminosity relationship.

Cepheids in Distance Measurements
The Baade-Wesselink method is used to determine the distance of a Cepheid by measuring the radial velocity of the star surface from the Doppler shift of spectral lines. See However, the redshift in spectral lines is in fact caused by absorption in DPs and has nothing to do with the radial velocity of the star surface. Instead, the spectral lines from DPs can only be proportional to the motion of ejected mass from Cepheid explosions.

The Doppler shift of spectral lines as a method to determine the surface velocity of a Cepheid has misled astronomers for some time. In Astronomy: A Physical Perspective, by Kutner (1987), the inward radial surface velocity of the star surface is shown out of phase with the outward moving star radius. If the spectral lines are interpreted by QED induced redshift in DPs that are proportional to mass emission, both the radial surface velocity and the star radius would only then correctly be in phase with each other.

In general, the negation of Doppler shift velocities by cosmic DPs has concerned astronomers since Hubble. See Applied to Cepheids, the conclusions are:

1. Cepheid pulsation cycles by UV heating are not caused by opaqueness of ionized helium. Fuzzy bright spotted images can only be caused by DPs.
2. Ejected mass in periodic explosions is the more likely Cepheid mechanism and is consistent with the one and only Supernova explosions. Gravitational attraction tends to return ejected mass to the Cepheid.
3. The Cepheid period-luminosity relationship is invalidated by DPs.
4. Baade-Wesselink spectroscopy provides a measure of mass emission rather the radial velocity of the star surface.

Nanoparticles do not damage DNA across barriers by signaling molecules

Ionizing radiation emitted by nanoparticles damages the DNA by penetrating barriers instead of the nanoparticle signaling across the barrier for the DNA to be damaged

Damage by Nanoparticles
On November 4, scientists at the University of Bristol announced that nanoparticles (NPs) of cobalt-chromium damaged DNA on the other side of a cellular barrier. See The NPs did not cause the damage by passing through th DNA e barrier which is usually thought. Instead, the Bristol scientists claimed the NPs generated signaling molecules within the barrier cells that were then transmitted to cause damage in cells on the other side of barrier.

However, the NP signaling molecules to induce DNA damage is not likely. Setting aside the fact NPs are inanimate lacking the capability of biological signaling, it is more likely the NPs generate electromagnetic (EM) radiation that readily penetrates the molecular barrier to cause DNA damage. Even if the molecular barrier is replaced with a thin nanometer metal film, the EM radiation can penetrate the film and damage the DNA on the other side.

On October 18-22, at the IEEE Nanomed 2009 Conference in Taiwan, DNA damage was claimed caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced in NPs by quantum electrodynamics (QED). See “DNA damage update” Paper and Presentation at By this theory, water molecules in body fluids transfer upon collision thermal kT energy at infrared (IR) frequencies to the NPs. However, quantum mechanics (QM) forbids the NPs to have specific heat, and therefore the absorbed kT energy from collisions cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds as the IR radiation is induced by QED to be frequency up-converted to the EM confinement of the NP, typically at UV or even higher frequencies. Subsequently, the UV leaks to the surroundings to cause DNA damage.

NPs provide a significant antibacterial agent in food processing, reducing infections in burn treatment, sunscreen skin lotions, and treating cancer tumors. However, there is a darkside. Over the past decade, experiments have unequivocally shown NPs to induce DNA damage and mimic that by conventional ionizing radiation. See Ibid. What enables the NPs to function to benefit mankind while at the same time posing a health risk is the remarkable fact NPs naturally emit a low level source of continuous UV or higher EM radiation.

The NPs need not be irradiated with lasers, as only collisions with surrounding molecules are sufficient to produce ionizing radiation. The wavelength of the EM radiation is given by 2Dn, where D is the NP diameter, and n is its refractive index. In the Bristol tests, D ~ 30 nm and taking an average n ~ 2.3, the EM radiation had a wavelength of about 140 nm and Planck energy or 8.8 eV.

The DNA damage induced by NPs is a cancer risk if not properly repaired. Given that NPs naturally produce low levels of ionizing radiation beyond the UV from surrounding water molecules, and that natural and man-made NPs are ubiquitous, the conjecture may be made that NPs are the most likely cause of cancers in man. Given the increased risk of NPs producing cancer, the regulation of NPs is highly recommended.

The Sunyaev- Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift because of Cosmic Dust

Cosmic dust explains why the intensity of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect is independent of Redshift.

Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect
Collapsing cluster galaxies are implosions producing extremely energetic electrons at temperatures of about 10^8 K. Astronomers believe CMBR photons passing through the collapsing galaxies gain energy by collisions with these electrons and blue-shift by the inverse-Compton effect. Measurement of CMBR in the direction of a cluster of galaxies shows a measurable, but almost imperceptible distortion called the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). See e.g.,

The SZE shows the 20 to 1000 GHz microwave emission from collapsing cluster galaxies is virtually identical to the CMBR. The SZE spectrum shows a decrease in intensity at frequencies lower than around 218 GHz with an increase in intensity at higher frequencies. Although electrons at 10^8 K emit X-rays, the thermal distortion of the CMBR is only of the order of one-thousandth of a Kelvin in temperature. At a given frequency, the SZE intensity varies in brightness in proportion to the mass distribution within the cluster. The SZE is usually only associated with massive objects such as clusters of galaxies, i.e., a single galaxy has insufficient mass to cause measurable distortions in the SZE.

However, the most remarkable finding is the SZE intensity is independent of redshift Z

QED induced Redshift in Cosmic Dust
Standard cosmology finds difficulty in explaining the independence of the brightness of the SZE intensity with Z. The SZE brightness during implosive cluster collapse should be no different than that from the explosive Supernova (SN) Type 1a expansion known to be proportional to Z. In fact, any time variation of light in any form including brightness of the SZE should be proportional to 1/(1+Z). See Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, 1972 and Blondin et al. at

Opinions are diverse of why this is so. Some astronomers think there is no redshift in the SZE because the inverse-Compton process based on scattering does not produce redshift. However, this cannot be correct because the CMBR photons are not redshift, but rather are blueshift in the SZE. In fact, the redshift measured in the SZE can only be caused by the optical and X-ray emission from the cluster galaxy collapse. The question may be asked:

Why do the explosive SN show redshift proportional to their magnitude while the implosive collapsing cluster galaxies do not show proportionality of the SZE to redshift?

In alternative cosmology, the question for collapsing galaxies may be answered by QED induced redshift of absorbed optical and X-ray photons in cosmic dust particles (DPs). Similar arguments have been made to explain the redshift from SN explosions. See and

By QED induced redshift in DPs, there is no conceptual difference between the Z of an exploding SN and an imploding cluster galaxy as both emit optical and X-ray photons that are absorbed in DPs. The DPs may be in or near the explosions or implosions including those distantly disposed in the light path to the observer. The only difference is the SN produce DPs that are proportional to the dust emission or magnitude of the SN explosions. In contrast, implosive cluster galaxy collapse does not produce DPs because temperatures in excess of 10^8 K preclude any dust formation. See .The Z in collapsing clusters is therefore independent of the SZE intensity because the absorption of optical and X-ray photons takes place in DPs removed from the collapse that are still in the light path to the observer. See

1. Standard cosmology cannot explain why the redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion.
2. Alternative cosmology based on QED induced redshift of optical and X-ray emission upon absorption in DPs explains both collapsing cluster galaxies and Supernova explosions.
3. The redshift in collapsing cluster galaxies is not proportional to the magnitude of the implosion because DPs cannot form in the high temperatures. In contrast, Supernovae explosions do produce DPs in proportion to the mass ejected.

Redshift by Cosmic Dust trumps Hubble and Tired Light Theories

Universe expansion based on Hubble redshift of galaxy light including the critique thereof by Tired Light theories are held in question by Cosmic Dust.

Hubble and Tired Light Theories
In 1929, Hubble formulated a law that the velocity of a receding galaxy is proportional to its distance to the Earth. The Hubble relation held in all directions suggesting to de Sitter that the Universe was consistent with the expansive metric of Einsteins theory of general relativity. However, others thought the Hubble redshift was caused by mechanisms without Universe expansion. Zwicky proposed that galaxy photons redshift because they lose energy as they scatter upon collision with cosmic dust particles (DPs) before entering the Earth, a redshift theory called Tired Light. See Recently, Ashmore extended Tired Light to loss of energy in galaxy photons upon collisions with electrons. See

Objections to Tired Light theories are generally based on the argument that scattered light should blur the galaxy image, and therefore are dismissed because the images are clear and not blurred. See However, claims that Tired Light theories do not explain all the predictions of Big Bang cosmology should be set aside because there is no mandate in science that any theory must totally stand alone, e.g., the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the current epoch may be simply explained by the static Universe in the current epoch having nearly uniform temperature everywhere of about 2.726K.

Alternative QED Induced Light Theory
An alternative to the Hubble and Tired Light theories is the theory of QED induced redshift caused by the absorption of galaxy light in DPs. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. See at “Dark Energy and Cosmic Dust” and “Reddening and Redshift”, 2009. QED theory asserts the redshift Z is spontaneous upon the absorption of light. Here Z = (Lo – L)/L, where L is the wavelength of galaxy light and Lo is the wavelength of the light emitted from the DP.

QED induced redshift may be understood by treating the absorbed galaxy photon as electromagnetic (EM) energy confined within the DP geometry. Recall from quantum mechanics (QM) that photons of wavelength Lo are created by supplying EM energy to a QM box with walls separated by Lo/2. For a spherical DP of diameter D, the QED photons are produced at a wavelength Lo = 2Dn, where n is the index of refraction which for the typical DP of amorphous silicate has n = 1.45. Hence, DPs having D = 0.25 microns redshift the Lyman-alpha line at 0.121 microns to a red line at 0.725 microns with Z ~ 5. If the QED induced redshift in DPs at Z = 5 is erroneously interpreted by the Hubble law, the galaxy recession velocity is 95 % of the speed of light when in fact the Universe is not expandingl.

Tolman Test and Supernovae Spectra Aging
Shortly after the Hubble discovery, Tolman devised a test to distinguish between a static and expanding Universe. See In a static Universe, the light intensity of an object drops inversely with the square of its distance from the observer, but the apparent area of the object also drops inversely with the square of the distance, so the brightness given as the intensity per unit area of the object is independent of the distance. However, if the Universe is expanding, astronomers claim the brightness is reduced by the fourth power of (1+Z). In 2001, Lubin and Sandage showed the redshift gave a reduction in brightness by the cube of (1+Z). Although the brightness is not reduced by the fourth power of (1+Z), the conclusion was the brightness test is consistent with the reality of Universe expansion.

However, there is a problem with the Tolman test because the brightness B of an object in the static Universe is not assumed reduced by absorption in DPs. By QED theory, a single interaction with a DP emits light at wavelength Lo = (1+Z)L. Therefore the brightness Bo at the observer is Bo = hc/Lo = hc/L(1+Z) = B/(1+Z), or the object brightness is reduced by (1+Z), but not by the cube of (1+Z) as measured. Closer agreement is found for multiple interactions, e.g., for N interactions, B drops inversely with the product (1+Z1)(1+Z2)…(1+ZN), where ZK is the redshift for interaction K.

The Tolman test aside, the aging of Supernovae spectra is found to drop inversely with (1+Z) at the observer. See Blondin et al. at For spectra defined by brightness/unit area, Bo = B divided by the respective wavelength. Equivalence is found by Bo/Lo = B/L(1+Z). Hence, QED theory for the spectra at the Supernovae is consistent with the measured spectra showing an inverse drop by (1+Z).

Time Dilation of Supernova Light Curves
Tired Light theories are claimed unable to explain the observed time dilation of Supernova light curves at high Z redshift, i.e., nearby supernovae that take 20 days to decay will take 40 days to decay when observed at redshift Z =1 See e.g., However, redshift in the QED theory differs from Tired Light in that it is proportional to the number of DPs in the light path that in turn is proportional to the total dust mass emitted in the Supernova explosion. Time dilation in observing Supernova explosions is nothing more thermal cooling of the dust mass, i.e, at high Z the Supernovae having larger dust mass takes a longer time to cool than at low Z. Hence, QED redshift theory based on DPs is consistent with Supernova light curves.

ISM Lights
A more compelling argument that DPs are the source of redshift of galaxy light is found on a far larger scale everywhere by the visible (VIS) light observed throughout the Universe. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to permeate the Universe including the interstellar medium (ISM). Indeed, astronomers explain the infrared (IR) spectra measured in the ISM by the thermal emission following the increase in temperature in DPs upon the absorption of single UV photons. But this is unlikely, because an increase in DP temperature is negated by the QM restriction that the specific heat of DPs vanishes. Also unlikely is VIS light produced in DPs by photoluminescence (PL) because a single UV photon is more likely to be absorbed anywhere in the DP than at the PL color center.

Without thermal emission and PL, the IR and VIS spectra can only be produced by QED induced redshift upon the absorption of single UV photons in DPs. VIS colors in the ISM require DPs having D < 0.5 microns while IR spectra depend on larger DPs found in molecular clouds. Similar to the Hubble redshift of galaxy light, the vivid ISM colors observed are produced without Universe expansion, e.g., single UV photons at 0.15 microns absorbed in a D = 0.125 to 0.25 micron silicate DPs, blue to red light corresponding to wavelengths from 0.362 to 0.725 microns is produced at redshift Z from 1.41 to 3.83. ISM light does not depend Universe expansion.


1. The measured Hubble redshift Z is caused by DPs and has nothing to do with an expanding Universe. DPs make moot the existence of dark energy because it is no longer necessary in a static Universe.

2. Tired Light theories based on scattering are likely to produce blurring of the object image. QED theory based on absorption and not scattering do not produce blurring.

3. QED theory does not agree with brightness reduction to the cube of (1+Z) in the Tolman test, but is found in agreement with the (1+Z) reduction in aged Supernovae spectra.

4. QED theory based on redshift of DPs is consistent with the observed time dilation of Supernova light curves.

5. The vivid VIS color variations in the ISM are caused by variations in DP diameter D and far less likely by PL from the chemical composition of the DPs. Larger DPs necessary to produce the IR spectra are found in molecular clouds.